哪个词是微观经济学的关键

看了人大经济学论坛的一个帖子,非常有意思,总结如下
 
题目就是:

微观经济学中最重要的关键词,如果只选一个,你会选哪个?

--给个理由先

—————————————————————————————-

marginal 这个单词把微积分引入经济学,使之摆脱人文形象,成为一门科学。

边际:因为有了边际,才引入了数理分析,使微观经济学大厦得以建立,也才更加完善和精深。

   因为有了边际,才使理性人这一微观经济学的基本概念得以更好的全释。

   不论成本,需求,生产力等等这些,在微观经济学中,它们的前面总爱放一个修饰词——边际!

 

价格:微观经济学的别名“价格理论”

价格:范里安的书不知大家有没有看过,看过后你就会发现这是一个很关键的关键字。

 

效用:理性的经济人的活动都是以效用为中心展开的

 

机会成本:很多理论都是可以通过机会成本解释的

机会成本:上本科时自从听到这个词以后,我就爱上了西方经济学!

成本,尤其是机会成本。没有付出哪来的回报。付出肯定最先,不管是什么形式。

机会成本:Buchanan的《cost and choice》说的就是这个概念对经济理论的重要意义所在。

 

利润:经济学就是研究行为主体怎么获得收益,减少成本,就是得到利润

利润:没有利润,一切都白搭。

 

理性:是我选择的最关键词吧,起码也是最关键词之一。微观经济学就是建立在理性的基础上的,对于理性的公理化阐述就展开了一幅宏丽的画卷。如果说数学是美的,那么我接触到微观经济学之后也感受到它的美,有时候我会想,是什么让杂乱无章的世界中出现了这样清晰美丽的图画。不过它也不是毫无缺憾的完美,而是有缺憾的美!( 非常同意)

理性:rationality.理性是根本

理性人:没有这个假设什么都是错的.

 

资源的稀缺性:人类发展的动力,经济学存在的理由

稀缺:整个经济学就是研究如何配置稀缺资源

资源配置:经济学就是一门研究如何合理配置稀缺资源以生产出不同的产品并分配给个人的科学。    “稀缺资源”可以认为是既定的,而“资源配置”是经济学应解决的首要问题。

稀缺:资源的稀缺——经济学产生的前提

   如何有效配置稀缺资源——经济学研究的目的

希缺和需求:两者的矛盾是经济科学产生的基础。没有了希缺和需求中的任何一个,就不可能也没有必要产生研究资源配置或选择的经济科学。所以,所谓边际、效用、市场、成本、机会成本、交易、理性人等等这些关键词都是在经济科学产生以后,即在“希缺”和“需求”的基础上产生的。

 

模型: 一比一的地图是没有意义的(这个太幽默了。一比一在经济学中并非完全没有意义,模型却绝非关键)

模型:西经都是在建立模型的基础上进行的研究!没得这个无法进行研究.

 

均衡:科学与艺术的完美统一

均衡:各种约束因素共同造就了这种状态,也是分析的基础。

均衡,绝对是均衡,每一个行为都是为了找到均衡点后再作决定!

均衡..从静态.比较静态.动态模型.微观经济学总是在寻找均衡.

 

假设:没有假设就没有经济学(这个不太赞同。没有假设就没有计量经济学倒是真的)

 

微观:明显的关键词(明显的形容词而已)

 

供求:因为供求是微观的基础,正是供求的存在,才引出了一个连贯的知识体系

 

需求定律:自利性假设的约束包含在里面; 几个理论的根基;经济学惊人解释力的首推定理."世界上有两种美:一是深刻又动人的需求曲线,一是你泛着倦意淡淡的笑容”

(此处指需求曲线向下。。。。这样的笑容果然是带有倦意的)

(需求曲线可以向上倾斜,也可能可以向下倾斜,课本上的需求曲线怎么画都可以,这样就是什么都可以解释,但其实也就什么都解释不了了.我所指的需求曲线,专指需求定律约束下的向下倾斜的那条.人有自利性的理性一面,也有非理性的一面,但现实生活中能够生存的更好是更能符合自利性理性的人,这样才是自利假设的精要.需求曲线向下,是把自利假设包含在里面的.一条需求曲线,加上产权,交易费用,合约等等约束条件,解释力惊人,如果运用得当,不会存在"就可能什么也没有解释’的困境.)

 

需求:曾经有位著名经济学家说过,让鹦鹉学会需求和供给,那么它也可以成为经济学家。我个人认为需求比供给更重要,因为著名经济学名著《蜜蜂的预言》里说过,奢侈带来富足,什么是奢侈?就是更为大的需求。喝酒的人有酒瘾,抽烟的人有烟瘾,可他们从来没有考虑过?为什么会出现烟和酒,为什么就没有别的替代物,因为只有它们才能满足他的需求,他们需求的东西才会出现。其实在市场经济条件下,这种表现得更强烈,只要有需求就会有供给。要没有需求,厂商也别供给了。

 

选择:斯蒂格利茨 都说经济学就是一门选择的科学,没有选择何来稀缺!

选择:经济学的所有理论都是围绕着这个词进行的

   其他的如成本,效用,稀缺等等都只不过是选择的注脚而已

 

亚当-斯密:(国富论 的作者,经济学奠基人。这真是够关键的)

马歇尔:我最喜欢的经济学家,定义了很多微观关键术语

 

自利:“经济人”更体现西经的价值观

 

从内容的角度说是价格;从方法的角度说是边际;从环境的角度讲是理性,从过程的角度讲是均衡。

 

交易:交易是经济学的本质(交易是经济行为的一个手段)

 

欲望:他是人们一切行为的动力(亲娘啊,这是研究心理学么)

  

最优化:经济学意义上的理性就表现为行为人的最优化选择,这也是经济学用来描述、理解人类行为及经济现象的一种基本方式

 

Medicare helpline is criticised as inacurate, inappropriate and incomplete

(U.S.A) Federal investigators said that about one-third of their calls resulted in faulty responses or no response at all because of disconnected calls. The accuracy rates varied a great deal based on the question, but when it came to one of the most important questions, operators provided the right answer only 41 percent of the time. That question concerned which drug plan cost the least for a beneficiary based on certain drug needs.

The investigators with the Government Accountability Office also kept track of how long it took for operators to answer the phone at 1-800-Medicare. For 75 percent of the 500 calls made, the wait was less than five minutes. However, for more than one in 10 calls, it took operators more than 15 minutes to answer the call.

“In one case, we were placed on hold for 54 minutes before being disconnected,” the GAO reported.

The investigators also looked at the federal government’s Web site, as well as the information described in a handbook sent to all beneficiaries. They found problems there as well.

 

How to shorten the waiting time could be an interesting topic in Health Economics/ Public Health.

 

为缩短某特定方面的健康热线咨询的等待时间,设计调查问卷及数据处理方法。

 

纪念五一国际劳动节,以不劳动

Five Balls of Life

  In a university commencement address several years ago, Brian Dyson, CEO of Coca Cola Ent-erprises, spoke of the relation of work to one’s other commitments:
 Imagine life as a game in which you are juggling some five balls in the air. You name them work, family, health, friends and spirit and you’re keeping all of these in the air. You will soon understand that work is a rubber ball. If you drop it, it will bounce back.
 But the other four balls family, health, friends and spirit are made of glass. If you drop one of these, they will be irrevocably scuffed, marked, nicked, damaged or even shattered. They will never be the same. You must understand that and strive for balance in your life. How?
 Don’t undermine your worth by comparing yourself with others. It is because we are different that each of us is special.
 Don’t set your goals by what other people deem important. Only you know what is best for you.
 Don’t take for granted the things closest to your heart. Cling to them as they would be your life, for without them, life is meaningless.
Don’t let your life slip through your fingers by living in the past or for the future. By living your life one day at a time, you live ALL the days of your life.
 Don’t give up when you still have something to give. Nothing is really over until the moment you stop trying.
 Don’t be afraid to admit that you are less than perfect. It is this fragile thread that binds us to each together.
 Don’t be afraid to encounter risks. It is by taking chances that we learn how to be brave.
 Don’t shut love out of your life by saying it’s impossible to find. The quickest way to receive love is to give it; the fastest way to lose love is to hold it too tightly; and the best way to keep love is to give it wings.
 Don’t run through life so fast that you forget not only where you’ve been, but also where you are going.
 Don’t forget, a person’s greatest emotional need is to feel appreciated.
 Don’t be afraid to learn. Knowledge is weightless, a treasure you can always carry easily.
 Don’t use time or words carelessly. Neither can be retrieved.
 Life is not a race, but a journey to be savored each step of the way.
 Yesterday is history, Tomorrow is a mystery and Today is a gift: that’s why we call it ‘The Present’.